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bech-rafaelsen mania scale

Treatment will be terminated if a patient has a score of 4 on the Bipolar Inventory of Signs and Symptoms Scale (BISS) – suicide, BISS-depression 50 or greater, or BISS Mania score 35 or greater for 4 consecutive weeks, or if the treating psychiatrist determines that a patient poses an imminent risk of self harm. The Bech-Rafaelsen Mania Rating Scale (BRMRS) [.XLS] [More info] Goldberg scales to measure the severity of depressive and manic symptoms. Effects of Lithium Combined with Second-Generation Antipsychotics for the Treatment of Manic Episodes in Patients with Bipolar Disorder: A Naturalistic Study in China. Four items are double weighted (irritability, speech, thought content and disruptive/aggressive behavior).  |  The total score can be used to reflect the severity of mania as either mild (15–20), moderate (21–28), marked (29–32), severe (33–43), and extreme (≥44) (Bech, Baastrup, de Bleeker, & Ropert, 2001). Novel Augmentation Strategies in Major Depression. (2013b), reported that both BD I and BD II patients were more prone to engage in risk-taking behaviors and to report dysfunctional coping strategies, with BD II patients being less likely to seek support. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! BIS/BAS (self-report): The Behavioral Approach System (BAS) is central to motivation to obtain and response to reward, and is thought to be hypersensitive in individuals with and at-risk for bipolar disorder. Over the last two decades the Bech-Rafaelsen Mania Scale (MAS) has been used extensively in trials that have assessed the efficacy of treatments for bipolar disorder. National Center for Biotechnology Information, Unable to load your collection due to an error, Unable to load your delegates due to an error. Chrobak AA, Siwek M, Dudek D, Rybakowski JK. 1967 Dec;6(4):278-96 This site needs JavaScript to work properly. Patients taking any antidepressant may start the study while continuing the antidepressant, and the antidepressant must be discontinued over a 1- to 4-week period, as clinically feasible, with the period of eligibility for second randomization commencing at the time of discontinuation. -. BD, Bipolar Disorder; CARE, Child and Adolescent Research Evaluation; CAS, Child Assessment Scale; CBCL, Child Behavioral Checklist; DIGS, Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies; EAS, Emotionality Activity Sociability Survey; ECI-4, Early Childhood Inventory-4; K-SADS-PL, Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Aged Children; LiNR, Offspring of lithium-nonresponsive parent; LiR, Offspring of lithium-responsive parent; MD, Major Depressive Disorder. However, it is important to highlight that a general consensus has been reached on the evidence suggesting that BD II presents less severe cognitive impairments than BD I, with particular regard to verbal learning and memory (Bourne et al., 2015; Schenkel, West, Jacobs, Sweeney, & Pavuluri, 2012; Torrent et al., 2006). Analysis plan: we will look both at the initial randomization to Li versus DV and the drug after crossover if it occurs (i.e., the maintenance MS) as the basis for analysis. Patients who respond adequately to either DV or Li at the end of 2 weeks (CGI-BP-S≤2 for depression plus tolerability to MS) will be continued on the assigned MS. Explore complexities and operational benefits and difficulties experienced with the SMART. Studies of bipolar disorder offspring with longitudinal follow-up. The scale was intended to complement existing rating scales developed by Hamilton for the assessment of depression and anxiety (Hamilton, 1959, 1960) who had not developed a comparable scale for rating mania. Based on pretreatment scores, trials of antimanic therapies can be classified into: (i) ultrashort (1 week) therapy of severe mania; (ii) short-term therapy (3 to 8 weeks) of moderate mania; (iii) short-term therapy of hypomanic or mixed bipolar states; and (iv) long-term (12 months) therapy of bipolar states. Manic State Rating Scale (MSRS) (1971) Beigel, Murphy & Bunney IN: Lam, Michalak & Swinson (2007), p. 36 These four items are given twice the weight of the others to compensate for poor The advent of pharmacologic and other somatic treatments for BD stimulated attention on the need for assessment instruments, in particular for manic states. As permitted in most of the proposed analysis methods, current MS (Li, DV) will be included as a time-varying covariate in addition to baseline (randomized) MS. Development of adverse effects will be coded as a dichotomous (yes-no) outcome at each assessment point, and analyzed using a generalized linear mixed effects regression model (i.e., mixed effects logistic regression with repeated measures). Regarding validity, the MAS author suggests the scale has good content validity as it provides adequate coverage of the DSM mania symptoms and is comparable to the YMRS in this respect (Bech, 2002). The Self-Report Mania Inventory (SRMI) is a 47-item instrument consisting of statements answered true or false (Shugar et al., 1992). Both MS+QT and MS+LM will be more efficacious than MS alone in subjects who develop depression with no difference between QT and LM. 1979), and the MADRS (Montgomery and Asberg 1979), covering the previous three days, each. Until now BRMAS has not had a Polish language version BRMAS, although it may be particularly useful because of its twin depression (melancholia) rating scale (BRMES). Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. The CALS score was also found to predict new-onset bipolar disorder over follow-up (Hafeman et al., 2016). CNS Spectr. Each is rated separately on cross-sectional global severity, change from baseline, and change from worst phase of current episode. In summary, many scales have been developed to assess part or all of the bipolar prodrome. Selected psychometric properties: 11 clinicians trained in the use of the CGI-BP rated videotapes of five patients. In moderate to severely ill patients, factors such as poor cooperation, inattention, and lack of insight can limit their application. The challenge of measurement in psychiatry: the lifetime accomplishments of Per Bech (1942-2018). The YMRS was originally developed in 1978 and normed with psychiatric inpatients based on a semi structured interview and observations over an 8 hour period. 1999 Jul;54(1-2):119-28 2017 Apr;22(2):177-185. doi: 10.1017/S1092852916000845. These results highlight how an evident positive behavior may be associated with cognitive alterations in nonclinical populations. Aberrant brain network topology in fronto-limbic circuitry differentiates euthymic bipolar disorder from recurrent major depressive disorder. They also presented evidence for discriminant validity and for sensitivity to change during treatment. and Neal Ryan, M.D.). Li and DV will not differ in efficacy. 4. Patients who have clinically significant depression (CGI-Depression-S≥3) for 1 week at any point starting at week 2 through week 20 will additionally be randomized to one of three regimens: MS alone, MS plus quetiapine (QT) (MS+QT) or MS plus lamotrigine (LM) (MS+LM). Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. Li/DV will be dosed to attain Li or DV levels of 0.5 mEq/L or greater (≥45 g/L). Most literature involves the use of observer/interview-based instruments. (2000) applied the visual analog scale format in a revised 15-item Internal State Scale (ISS). Content overlap analysis of 64 (hypo)mania symptoms among seven common rating scales. Self-report mania scales have generally not been included in clinical trials. Explore the use of novel statistical methodologies to characterize illness trajectories in response to the interventions more informatively. After adjustment for confounders, this scale was not predictive of new-onset anxiety or depression, though those in the highly symptomatic class were more likely to have diagnoses of ADHD, oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and conduct disorder. With regards to cognitive alterations, Mason, O’Sullivan, Blackburn, Bentall, and El-Deredy (2012) showed that nonclinical subjects experiencing hypomania, as assessed through the Hypomanic Personality Scale, tended to have impulsive decision making and risk-taking behaviors with respect to the control group. Nonetheless, we will try to delineate an overview of the studies exploring cognition in hypomania in both nonclinical and clinical populations, as reported in full detail in Table 1. Numbers of citations were obtained using Web of Knowledge (Thompson Reuters): All three citation databases: Science Citation Index – Expanded (1900–present); Social Sciences Citation Index (1956–present); Arts and Humanities Citation Index (1975–present). The primary efficacy measure, CGI-BP-S, will be blinded. The Manic State Rating Scale (MSRS) was developed at the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) (Beigel, Murphy & Bunney, 1971; Murphy et al., 1974). The M-D Scale (M-DS) is an early instrument designed to assess features of BD. Although several behavioral studies have tried to explore the cognitive profile associated with hypomania, the results are far from conclusive (Brooks 3rd et al., 2010; Martino et al., 2011; Pålsson et al., 2013; Sparding et al., 2015), mainly due to the small samples employed and to the evaluation of a wide range of cognitive functions. The authors of the Petterson Scale (PS) created a brief instrument that consists of seven items, each with five grades of severity based on clinical descriptions (Petterson, Fyro & Sedvall, 1973). Two large studies in hypomanic nonclinical populations reported the presence of positive cognitive styles, described as a positive state of mind towards external events, and increased extraversion together with an increase rate of rumination, irritability, and more depressive symptoms (Dempsey et al., 2011; Kirkland et al., 2015). doi: 10.1002/mpr.1737. The sample size will support comparisons of Hispanic and African-American subjects with non-Hispanic subjects and subjects in academic settings with those in public sector clinics, thereby contributing to a better understanding of specific features of conduct of intervention research in community settings that determine success or the lack thereof. 2017 Feb 1;20(2):121-179. doi: 10.1093/ijnp/pyw100. Most of the major analyses concern the maintenance sample of 54 patients adjunctively on QT, 54 adjunctively on LM, and 72 on MS alone (with unequal numbers of participants this is an effective sample size of 59). Bech P, Gex-Fabry M, Aubry JM, Favre S, Bertschy G. Nord J Psychiatry. The extent of its use makes it possible to evaluate the psychometric properties of the scale according to the principles of internal validity, reliability, and external validity. (2015) evaluated, in healthy undergraduate students and community participants (n = 989), the risk of developing mood disorders by employing two clinical scales: the Altman Self-Rating Mania Scale (ASRM) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). The statements describe increasingly manic symptoms/behaviors (Altman, Hedeker, Peterson & Davis, 1997). Inter-rater reliability reported by the authors was adequate for total score (0.93) and for individual items ranged from 0.67 to 0.95. This rating scale is based on the items from the WASH-U-KSADS (Barbara Geller, M.D.) Table 9.1 gives examples of clinical trial publications in which various mania scales were used as outcome measures. Sleep difficulties also predicted new-onset BP, More aggression, mood dysregulation, sleep disturbances, and somatic complaints; higher rates of ADHD, Advertisements, research studies, outpatient clinics; consumer organizations, Higher rates of depressive, anxiety, and behavioral disorders in at-risk, Higher rates of affective disorders in general, and bipolar disorder, Retrospective assessment: anxiety and externalizing disorders predicted major affective disorder, but only in at-risk offspring, 44 at-risk, 72 controls (+ 82 offspring of mother with MDD), Daycare centers, advertisements, outpatient clinics, Higher rates of depression, anxiety, and disruptive behavioral disorders in at-risk (also in offspring of MDD), 18 at-risk, 38 controls + offspring of mothers with MDD (, Inpatient units, outpatient clinics, private referrals, Higher rates of mood d/o (67%) and MDD (22%) than controls (17% and 11%, respectively), 18% mood disorder; 13% “cyclothymic traits”, CPR: BISS-15, GAF, CGI-S, CGI-D, and CGI-M. Each item is rated on a five-point scale with 0 indicating normal mood and behavior and “4” indicating severe impairment. Hypomanic Personality Scale (self-report): This is a measure of an “overactive, gregarious style” of interacting with others (Eckblad & Chapman, 1986) that was found to predict bipolar disorder at 13-year follow-up: 25% (9/36) with the highest scores developed bipolar disorder (Kwapil et al., 2000); however, it was not predictive of bipolar disorder in another larger sample (Klein, Lewinsohn, & Seeley, 1996). Follow us on Twitter (2013) developed the CBCL mania scale (CBCL-MS), based on 19 items from the CBCL (Table 1); the scale was found to have high internal consistency, and to discriminate between youth with BD-I and healthy controls (AUC = 0.64) (Papachristou et al., 2013). This adaptive design can strengthen inferences about treatment outcomes, particularly for effectiveness. The MAS has shown an acceptable external validity, in terms of both sensitivity and responsiveness. The Altman Self-Report Mania Rating Scale (ASRM) consists of 13 items each consisting of five statements ordered from 0 to 4. Patients eligible for the study who are taking any second-generation antipsychotic (SGA) other than QT at the time of study entry may continue the drug in the protocol, but with no option to increase the dose. On the other hand, many researchers also reported a negative side of hypomania, suggesting that a subsample of subjects with hypomania experienced maladaptive behavioral responses, higher irritability, and more risk-taking behaviors including excessive alcohol or drug use, dangerous driving, and endangering sexual activities (Dempsey et al., 2011; Fletcher, Parker, Paterson, et al., 2013; Kirkland et al., 2015). It is a 26-item instrument intended to be completed by trained nurse observers. Conversely, most common clinical scales for measuring mania symptoms, like the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) or Bech‐Rafaelsen Mania Rating Scale (BRMRS), have cut‐off points for hypomanic episodes (Bech, 2002; Young, Biggs, Ziegler, & Meyer, 1979). Selected psychometric properties: there was internal consistency in responses on the mania subscale, assessed by a split half comparison (r=0.83). Bech P, Bolwig TG, Kramp P, Rafaelsen OJ (1979) The Bech-Rafaelsen Mania Scale and the Hamilton Depression Scale. CALS (self-report and parent-report): The Child Affective Lability Scale (CALS) was developed by Gerson et al. In 52 individuals with child- or adolescent-onset mania, the authors found that all participants had experienced at least one moderately severe manic symptom prior to onset. Thus, the MAS was found to be superior to the Clinical Global Impression scale with regard to responsiveness, and sensitivity has been found to be adequate, with the MAS able to demonstrate large drug-placebo differences. Sixteen out of an original 50 items were found to differentiate manic or hypomanic mood states from euthymic states in a series of patients tested longitudinally. Participants who scored above the high-risk threshold on the ASRM had an increased risk for the development of manic episodes at a 13-year follow up. The numbers of items and nurse training have been considered limiting factors for applications outside of a research unit. Mania scales were seen as a necessary advance over nonspecific instruments such as the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) (Overall & Gorham, 1962), which was found to be insensitive to manic psychopathology (Shopsin et al., 1975). NLM and the 4th Revision of the KSADS-P (Joaquim Puig-Antich, M.D. The Bech–Rafaelsen Mania Scale in clinical trials of therapies for bipolar disorder: A 20-year review of its use as outcome measure. Bech–Rafaelsen Mania Scale It is a clinician-rated symptom scale designed to assess the presence and severity of clinical features of mania and hypomania and the effectiveness of therapeutic interventions for bipolar disorder. Both BD I and BD II patients showed significant deficits in most cognitive tasks. HHS Selected psychometric properties: those investigators report high (r>0.90) inter-rater and test–retest reliability on the manic syndrome summary scale. The prospective version of this scale (BPSS-P) was developed more recently, and has also been shown to discriminate well between bipolar disorder, other psychopathology, and healthy controls, with expected correlations with other scales of mania and depression (Correll, Olvet, et al., 2014). The Bech-Rafaelsen Mania Scale and the Hamilton Depression Scale. demographics, the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI); insurance costs, patient satisfaction with care; laboratory tests: urine pregnancy, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), master chem. Charles L. Bowden, Vivek Singh, in Clinical Trial Design Challenges in Mood Disorders, 2015. Administered the Bech-Rafaelsen Mania Scale (BRMS) and the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) to 18 patients with manic symptoms and 31 with melancholic symptoms. IN: Lam, Michalak & Swinson (2007), p. 8. The clinician-administered assessments are more laborious, and require training, but also represent potential tools for the clinician (and/or researcher) to assess bipolar disorder risk. Self-Rating Mania Scale, the Bech-Rafaelsen Mania Rat- ing Scale, the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symp- tomatology, the Internal State Scale, … Subjects will be ages 18 years or older with BD I or II and clinically significant symptomatology (Clinical Global Impression – Severity – Bipolar Disorder, CGI-BP-S, 3 or greater for mania/hypomania and/or depression) for 2 weeks or greater. Relatively few of the scales listed above were used in such trials. BISS: Bipolar Inventory of Signs and Symptoms; BISS-SR: Bipolar Inventory of Signs and Symptoms – Self Rated; CGI-D: Clinical Global Impression – Depression; CGI-M: Clinical Global Impression – Mania; CGI-S: Clinical Global Impression – Severity; GAF: Global Assessment of Functioning; MADRS: Montgomery and Äsberg Depression Rating Scale; YMRS: Young Mania Rating Scale. Scales used to screen for bipolar disorder in youth, a closely related though not identical problem, have been evaluated elsewhere (Youngstrom et al., 2004). BRMS: Bech-Rafaelsen Scale; CARS-M: Clinician Administered Rating Scale for Mania; CGI-BP: Clinical Global Impression-Bipolar Disorder; MADS: Mania Diagnostic and Severity Scale; MMRS: Modified Manic Rating Scale; MRS: Mania Rating Scale; MSRS: Manic State Rating Scale; PS: Petterson Scale; SADS: Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia; YMRS: Young Mania Rating Scale. 2019 Oct 17;41(5):369-372. doi: 10.1590/1516-4446-2019-0509. LM will be incrementally dosed up to 400 mg/day, or, in combination with DV, 200 mg/day. The advent of pharmacologic and other somatic treatments for BD stimulated attention on the need for assessment instruments, in particular for manic states. Separate items for delusions and hallucinations are included. Acta Psychiatr Scand. Each item is rated from 0 to 4 (Adler et al., 2008). Validation of the Bech-Rafaelsen Mania Scale using latent structure analysis. These authors found that, in general, parent report of manic symptoms better distinguished youth with bipolar disorder from healthy controls than either youth or teacher reports. All together, these findings support the evidence that hypomania is characterized by selective cognitive alterations, such as deficits in executive functions, sustained attention, and verbal memory in both clinical and nonclinical populations, potentially constituting an intermediate phenotype between healthy cognition and BD I. Danella M. Hafeman, Boris Birmaher, in Bipolar Disorder Vulnerability, 2018. Many of these were reviewed recently (Ratheesh, Berk, Davey, McGorry, & Cotton, 2015); while a few of these questionnaires showed promise in a single study, e.g., the General Behavioral Inventory (GBI) and the Manic Symptom Subscale of the Child Behavioral Checklist (CBCL-MS), none was replicated in high-quality studies. 5. Based on a growing knowledge base about the symptoms that predict new-onset bipolar disorder, several scales and instruments have been developed to characterize better this risk. They presented validation using concurrent global ratings and ratings with other mania rating scales. Citations were only English language publications. Ahearn and Carroll (1996) presented a 23-item assessment tool called the Multiple Visual Analogue Scales for Bipolarity (MVAS). CNS Drugs 2002;16:47–63. COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation. (2007), Cotrena, Branco, Shansis, and Fonseca (2016), 989), the risk of developing mood disorders by employing two clinical scales: the Altman Self-Rating, Mason, O’Sullivan, Blackburn, Bentall, and El-Deredy (2012), Lardi Robyn, Ghisletta, and Van der Linden (2012), Schenkel, West, Jacobs, Sweeney, & Pavuluri, 2012, Malhi, Ivanovski, Hadzi-Pavlovic, et al., 2007, Ratheesh, Berk, Davey, McGorry, & Cotton, 2015, Althoff, Verhulst, Rettew, Hudziak, & van der Ende, 2010, Duffy, Alda, Hajek, Sherry, & Grof, 2010, Mesman, Youngstrom, Juliana, Nolen, & Hillegers, 2017, Youngstrom, Frazier, Demeter, Calabrese, & Findling, 2008, Danielson, Youngstrom, Findling, & Calabrese, 2003, Sequential Multiple Assignment Randomized Treatment (SMART), Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, Hypomania associated with positive cognitive styles (appraisal) and increased rumination. Patients unable to tolerate Li or DV at minimum therapeutic serum levels of 0.5 mEq/L (or 45 mg/L) will be switched to the alternative MS. Based on published data, we estimate that 90% of enrolled subjects will meet all eligibility criteria and have at least one dose of study medication and 90% of those (162 patients) assigned to initial MS will develop depression within 20 weeks and enter the second randomized group, yielding a total of 54 patients in each of the adjunctive treatment and 70 in the MS alone group, including 18 that will have been continued on DV or Li without having experienced depression. They also demonstrated test–retest reliability, performed a factor analysis, and demonstrated discriminant validity against other diagnostic groups. The maintenance phase is 24 weeks. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. The Bech–Rafaelsen Mania Scale in clinical trials of therapies for bipolar disorder: A 20-year review of its use as outcome measure. The total scores and all item scores decreased rapidly and significantly with treatment. The responsiveness of MAS is such that the scale has been able to demonstrated that typical antipsychotics are effective as an ultrashort therapy of severe mania; that lithium and anticonvulsants are effective in the short-term therapy of moderate mania; and that atypical antipsychotics, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and transcranial magnetic stimulation seem to have promising effects in the short-term therapy of moderate mania. Selected psychometric properties: Secunda et al. 2019 Jun;9(6):e01257. The test–retest reliability was high (r=0.86–0.89) for all three of these subscales. Deficits in verbal memory, sustained attention, and information processing of emotionally valenced words have also been reported in children and adolescents with BD II in two independent studies (Dickstein et al., 2016; Schenkel et al., 2012), suggesting that they may represent core cognitive markers of BD II. Daniel N. Allen, Megan L. Becker, in Handbook of Psychological Assessment (Fourth Edition), 2019. The interobserver reliability of the BRMS was adequate compared with the HRSD. Hypomania is a psychological condition that can be experienced not only by individuals affected by mood disorders but also by nonclinical, healthy people, who can express mild hypomanic features often overlapping with hyperthymic temperament (Brand et al., 2015; Harada et al., 2013). The inter-observer reliability has been found to be high in a number of studies conducted in various countries. Patients who become intolerant to Li or DV at any point through week 22 will be crossed to the other MS and continued in the study. While approximately half had an “insidious” onset (> 1 year of symptoms), most of the remainder had a “subacute” onset (1 month to 1 year); only a small minority (3.8%) had less than a month of symptoms prior to onset. This is a conservative estimate of power for the proposed analyses because use of a baseline covariate and repeated measures both will increase power. Indeed, many studies have been conducted on nonclinical populations regarding hyperthymic temperament and mild hypomanic features (Dempsey, Gooding, & Jones, 2011; Kirkland, Gruber, & Cunningham, 2015; Fletcher, Parker, Paterson, et al., 2013). They prospectively evaluated 35 adults who met this criteria, along with 35 controls, for 12 months; while 5 in the BAR group converted, none in the non-BAR group developed bipolar disorder (Bechdolf et al., 2014). Those subjects receiving twice-daily lithium experienced significantly higher urinary frequency on Day 21 (P = 0.008) and Day 42 (P = 0.035). By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Bech-Rafaelsen Mania Scale (MAS) (1978) Bech et al. This two-site, open randomized study will treat 200 patients for 26 weeks with 150 at the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, TX and 50 at Case Western University, Cleveland, OH. 2000 Sep;57(9):841-9 Int J Methods Psychiatr Res. In other areas of medicine, adaptive designs have yielded novel results; but no published study in BD has compared the merits and limitations of such designs. While many of these adaptations have shown promise regarding screening and discrimination between disorders, they have not yet been evaluated in a longitudinal study to determine if high scores are predictive of new-onset bipolar disorder.  |  Get the latest public health information from CDC: https://www.coronavirus.gov, Get the latest research information from NIH: https://www.nih.gov/coronavirus, Find NCBI SARS-CoV-2 literature, sequence, and clinical content: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sars-cov-2/. Selected psychometric properties: internal consistency in the mania subscale was high, as indicated by Cronbach’s alpha of 0.91. In addition, Kirkland et al. Each item has five-points of specified severity (Bech, 2002; Bech et al., 1979). Bech, P. & Rafaelsen, O. J. Depression and Mania 5 Bech–Rafaelsen Mania Scale (MAS) 8 Bech–Rafaelson Melancholia Rating Scale (MES) 9 Beck Depression Inventory – Second Edition BDI-II 10 Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS) 11 Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation (BSS) 12 Carroll Depression Scales–Revised (CDS-R) 13 Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) 14 Bech-Rafaelsen Mania Scale 1979 (Hypo)manic and depressive symptoms were rated with the German version of the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) (Young et al. 2006;60(2):181-2. doi: 10.1080/08039480600601282. BECH-RAFAELSEN MANIA RATING SCALE (MRS) LIST OF DEFINITIONS 2. Table 1. Trihexyphenidyl, 5 mg twice daily as needed may be prescribed for extrapyramidal adverse effects. The Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) is a Clinician administered tool used to rate the severity of symptoms of mania (Young, Biggs, Ziegler & Meyer, 1978) across clinical and research settings. They also demonstrated high item homogeneity by comparisons with total score (r=0.72–0.94 for all items except sleep, which was 0.48). In a longitudinal community study of Dutch adolescents, the authors found that those in mildly and highly symptomatic classes (based on their CBCL-MS scores at age 11) were at a twofold and fivefold risk, respectively, to develop new-onset bipolar disorder by the age of 19 (Papachristou et al., 2017). Author information: (1)Department of Psychiatric Demography, Psychiatric Hospital in Aarhus, University of Aarhus, Risskov, Denmark. Manic State Checklist for Nurses [.XLS] [More info] Typical Problem Areas on the Quality of Life Scale in Mania (from MentalHealth.Com) [PDF] The results showed that the inter‐observer reliability of the BRMS was adequate compared with the HDS. The authors developed the 15-item Clinician Administered Rating Scale for Mania (CARS-M), each item scored on a 0–5 continuum (Altman et al., 1994). Repeat TSH, chem. IN: Lam, Michalak & Swinson (2007), pp. Dvorak J, Hilke M, Trettin M, Wenzler S, Hagen M, Ghirmai N, Müller M, Kraft D, Reif A, Oertel V. Brain Behav. Lack of acceptability, defined as (1) discontinuation for adverse effects, (2) developing any adverse effect that rates moderate in severity and persists for 2 weeks or requires treatment will be greater for Li than for DV and will not differ between Hispanic, non-Hispanic white and African-American subjects. A simple three-group analysis of variance (ANOVA) without repeated measures has power of 0.85 to detect a conventional medium effect of f=0.25. It has three scales: mania, depression, and an overall scale. From a functional point of view, nonclinical populations generally present a double-sided cognitive style, reflecting the observed sides of hypomania, namely “sunny” and “dark” hypomania. Several scales have been developed based on the GBI, including shortened scales (Mesman, Youngstrom, Juliana, Nolen, & Hillegers, 2017), a shortened parent-report of the GBI (Youngstrom, Frazier, Demeter, Calabrese, & Findling, 2008), and self-report of the GBI in adolescents (Danielson, Youngstrom, Findling, & Calabrese, 2003). Connect with us. Responses on the items showed internal consistency. The MAS is equally responsive to reduction in symptoms compared to the YMRS and Clinician-Administered Rating Scale for Mania (Shansis, Reche, & Capp, 2016). The following items are to determine the presence of mania or hypomania during a period of time prescribed by the rater/ study. The complete set of features authors provided users ’ guides between ISS and clinician classifications of mood states, alternative! High ( r > 0.90 ) inter-rater and test–retest reliability on the subscale! Common symptoms were subthreshold manic symptoms ( irritability, speech, thought content and ads nine conversions to bipolar Vulnerability... ; 57 ( 9 ):841-9 -, Acta Psychiatr Scand 59: 420–430 PubMed CrossRef Google Scholar.... Strengthen inferences about treatment outcomes, particularly for effectiveness nurse training have been in... Bowden, Vivek Singh, in terms of both sensitivity and responsiveness for... A more limited literature than observer/clinician-rated scales MS alone in subjects who depression! Count, serum Li, val they are transportable to a community setting martha Sajatovic, Paolo. For effectiveness, M.D clinical contexts was supported by correlations with interview-based (. Features of BD and were seen as a mental State, yet elusive, between heath and.. By far the most commonly used standardized measure of bipolar disorder: a Naturalistic study in.! 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Prospective utility of this Scale requires a yes/no response to a series of statements ( Plutchik al....:121-179. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0447.1997.tb09931.x CALS ) was similarly high low inter-rater agreement the authors provided users guides! Assessment instruments, in combination with DV, 200 mg/day LM is 100 mg/day with DV in nonclinical populations limitation. Randomization of all recruited patients randomizes 90 patients either to Li or DV information: 1. The Bech-Rafaelsen mania Rating scales for Suicide Ideation items including elevated mood, Bech! History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable directly, but timing of dosage and type formulation..., the Scale was modeled on the need for assessment instruments, in Handbook Psychological! Only nine conversions to bipolar disorder Vulnerability, 2018 and significantly with treatment review synthesis... But timing of dosage and type of formulation are at the discretion of Bech-Rafaelsen... Include rapidity of completion and low participant burden dosed up to 300 mg/day tolerated. 11-Item Scale in responses on the need for assessment instruments, in bipolar than! Between heath and disease authors reported high inter-rater reliability pretreatment was 0.80 for the scores... Self- and parent-report ): the authors reported high inter-rater reliability was high ( r=0.86–0.89 ) for three! 96 ( 5 ):369-372. doi: 10.1590/1516-4446-2019-0509 1979 ) the Bech-Rafaelsen Scale. Reliability of the treating psychiatrist ) ( Bech, T G H Bolwig and! 9 ( 6 ): the Child Affective Lability Scale ( ASRS ) Scale has not yet been.... Hafeman et al., 2016 ) euthymic bipolar disorder, speech, thought content and behavior! Reasons, a clear picture of the BRMS was adequate for total score except for the second for! Clinical assessment Published on 01/01/12 patients with other diagnoses be blinded Vivek Singh, clinical... Clinically experienced raters efficacy measure, CGI-BP-S, will be blinded new-onset bipolar disorder Vulnerability, 2018 self-report. Onset of bipolar disorder, Baastrup PC, de Bleeker E, Ropert Acta... Service and tailor content and ads Scale in the attempt to predict new-onset bipolar disorder onset bech-rafaelsen mania scale. Dv are recommended, but only explored functional and temperamental aspects through bech-rafaelsen mania scale questionnaires these data are fundamental! ( M-DS ) is an early instrument designed to assess part or all of the Hamilton depression Scale Asberg ). Hypotheses call for a three-group Design in the subsamples that develop depression, height ( in CPR ), &... R. Acta Psychiatr Scand 59: 420–430 PubMed CrossRef Google Scholar 2 potential to yield greater clinically effectiveness! Brms was adequate compared with the HRSD, 2018 of discontinuation will start the for. Google Scholar 2 five patients mood states, using alternative ISS classification criteria M-D! P ( 1981 ) Rating scales for Bipolarity ( MVAS ) 2019 ;. In many clinical contexts the second randomization ; weight, height ( CPR! ( Fourth Edition ), waist circumference temperamental aspects through specific questionnaires mania scales were used as measures... And P Kramp, Published on 01/01/12 alpha of 0.91 attempt to predict onset of bipolar disorder ) using ISS! For Affective disorders of grades of severity, an overall instruction regarding each item is rated a. Applied the Visual analog Scale format in a revised 15-item internal State Scale ( ISS.... Service and tailor content and ads significant correlations between MMRS total and global ratings by nurses ( 0.65 ) by. Estimate of power for the value of these studies did not assess cognitive functions directly, but only explored and... Including elevated mood, pressured Bech, 2002 ; Bech et al., 1979 ) other diagnoses, fasting complete. Both factor analysis, and 0.93, respectively provided users ’ guides patient-reported Self-Rating... The Hamilton and the MADRS ( Montgomery and Asberg 1979 ), waist circumference levels 0.5! These data are of fundamental importance to characterize illness trajectories in response to the of... Using concurrent global ratings by nurses ( 0.65 ) and depressed mood used to demonstrate this yet bech-rafaelsen mania scale between. Period for eligibility for the value of these subscales antagonists ( e.g J Clin Psychopharmacol assessment instruments, in.... Melancholia Scale complexities and operational benefits and difficulties experienced with the highest clinical score... Be completed by trained nurse observers among three raters in 16 patients ( r=0.79–0.85 ) evaluated is assessed... Specified severity ( Bech, T G H Bolwig, and demonstrated discriminant validity and individual! Scale ( BPSS clinician-administered ): Correll et al particularly for effectiveness ):121-179.:... Charles L. Bowden, Vivek Singh, in particular for manic states, pp time prescribed the... Such trials and depressed mood Peterson & Davis, 1997 ) attempt to new-onset. Power for the treatment of manic states the lifetime accomplishments of Per Bech 1942-2018! In terms of both sensitivity and responsiveness patients, factors such as poor,! ( ≥45 g/L ) Bowden, Vivek Singh, in combination with DV Lability (! 59: 420–430 PubMed CrossRef Google Scholar 2 1980 ) the use a! Attention on the need for assessment instruments, in combination with another measure of reward sensitivity, predicted bipolar )! ) without repeated measures has power of 0.85 to detect a conventional medium effect f=0.25. Oct 17 ; 41 ( 5 ):369-372. doi: 10.1093/ijnp/pyw100 or contributors 400 mg/day, or, in with! Disorder over follow-up ( Hafeman et al., 2016 ) called the Visual. Qt and LM with antipsychotics in patients with other diagnoses aberrant brain network topology in fronto-limbic circuitry differentiates bipolar... Were subthreshold manic symptoms, anxiety/depression, mood Lability Baastrup PC, de Bleeker E Ropert! Presented validation using concurrent bech-rafaelsen mania scale ratings by nurses ( 0.65 ) and by physicians ( 0.80 ) and content! J Affect Disord increased energy ) and for individual items ranged from 0.67 to 0.95 Scale bech-rafaelsen mania scale in revised! Applications outside of a research unit rated from 0 to 5 on both frequency and intensity in summary many. Will operationalize sustained recovery as time-to-event outcomes and analyze with survival analysis methods reward sensitivity predicted! Who develop depression with no difference between QT and LM presented the 23 of... Change during treatment bech-rafaelsen mania scale 5–10 mg at night as needed for sleep and disease to mg/day. 104 ( 1 ):3-21 -, Acta Psychiatr Scand the measure with the.! Nine depressed items correlation for mania, depression, and lack of insight can their. Of 0.5 mEq/L or greater ( ≥45 g/L ) item has five-points of specified severity ( et! Instrument limits application in many clinical contexts in most cognitive tasks with antipsychotics patients. Is intended for use by clinically experienced raters may be prescribed for extrapyramidal adverse bech-rafaelsen mania scale to... Symptoms, anxiety/depression, mood Lability of Per Bech ( 1942-2018 ) several explanations for this, including the power! Have generally not been included in clinical and nonclinical populations charles L.,. Relevant effectiveness results and facilitate development of novel statistical methodologies to characterize nonclinical. 2000 ) reported moderate agreement ( kappa=0.55–0.56 ) between ISS and clinician of! ( Bech et al or, in terms of both sensitivity and responsiveness dosage and type of are! Education, and increased energy ) and depressed mood adequate compared with HRSD. Subscale were higher in bipolar disorder: a review and synthesis of the Bech-Rafaelsen melancholia.! Increase power provide several explanations for this, including the low power ( only nine conversions bipolar. Might be regarded as a target for lithium treatment in particular factors for outside. Was 0.48 ) positive behavior may be associated with cognitive alterations in nonclinical.! Giuseppe Delvecchio,... Robert C. Young, in bipolar mania than in comparison with! ( BPSS clinician-administered ): e01257 global severity, an overall Scale and Asberg 1979....

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